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The concept of sustainable development is concerned with the quality of economic growth, human well-being, and the environment. Hence, it connects environmental, economic, and social issues as reflected in the Triple Bottom Line approach. Forestry and forests meet the country’s major functions that are essential to its ecological stability, rational use and sustainable development. The various economic and business indicators of forestry sector are therefore divided into three pillars: economic, environmental and social. The paper presents the economic and financial results of all subjects in forestry sector for 2016 and analyses their development for the period 2010–2016. Total sales and revenues of all subjects of forestry sector reached in 2016 the amount of 980 million €. The costs of all subjects in forestry sector amounted to 930 million €. Forestry sector achieved in 2016 profit in the amount of 50 million €. On the other side, forestry sector fulfils also environmental and social aspects, and therefore it could be concluded that forest management in Slovakia is sustainable. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
In order to determine the possible disturbance of the planting material by incorrect manipulation, the method of plant moisture stress (PMS) assessment was used. Two-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) seedlings collected on two different dates in two forest nurseries were used. Seedlings were exposed to controlled drying – loosely distributed on the shelves in the laboratory with exposed roots for 2, 4 and 6 hours. For fresh and exposed seedlings the plant water stress PMS was measured by the pressure chamber and the water content in the above-ground parts and roots gravimetrically as the differences between fresh weight and dry matter. Other seedlings of the same treatments were planted in outdoor conditions. Naked roots lost water 2 to 3 times faster than shoots. During drying significantly increased water stress PMS (3–7 bars in unexposed, more than 13 bars after 2 hours and 18.5 to nearly 30 bars after 4 and 6 hours of exposure). PMS significantly correlated with water content in roots and shoots. The high PMS values also corresponded to high mortality (no loss in unexposed seedlings, 25–55% after 2 hours and more than 80% after 4 and 6 hours of drying). For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
The floodplain forest ecosystems are very important for biodiversity of European landscape. The habitat of the forests has been modified by human activities. One of the factors induced by human is absence of large predators and related high population density of large herbivores, typically various deer species. We have studied the ungulate (roe deer, fallow deer) browsing impact on shrub layer density and species composition of nesting birds in the floodplain forest of Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic). The birds were counted during nesting seasons (from the end of March till the beginning of July) in 2017 and 2018. The assessment of browsing was carried out in May 2018. We used transect methods for ungulate impact assessment and territory mapping method for birds community assessment. Our results suggested high ungulate browsing pressure and a very strong reduction of the woody plants smaller than 2.1 m. The densities of nesting birds were atypically low for the floodplain forest. The bust nesters were completely absent, the ground nesters has low population density. The observed intense ungulate browsing can be considered to be an important limiting factor to bird diversity, especially to bush nesters density in the floodplain forest. The reduction of ungulate population density is the key measure not only for maintenance of the floodplain forest dynamics, but also for conservation of birds’ community and for biodiversity conservation. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
The submitted paper is a result of the 10-year monitoring of the occurrence of the bark beetle in conditions of an organization unit in a state enterprise Forest of the Czech Republic (Lesy České republiky, s. p.). The statistical findings were further elaborated based on the hypothesis of the dynamic intersection of the factor sets within several years-long development of acceptances of a specific progress of natural-climatic conditions in the area. Although the extracted volumes of bark beetle mass are again alarming, the negative economic effect, which the forest owners in the Czech Republic must face is generally underestimated. The aim of the paper is to show some underestimated relations in the subject area when the invasive strategy of the bark beetle (Ips typographus) behaves according to the law of large numbers and geometric series with a high degree of coefficient. The hypothetical processed model is documented on verified values based on statistical surveys carried out by the author of the paper in the reference period 2007–2016. The issue of the invasion of the bark beetle is in the current period (November 2017) a very frequent topic, and it is a subject to many non-economic debates. The secondary aim of the paper is to show the biologically-mathematical nature and the principle of the bark beetle invasive behaviour. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
Early thinning impacts on development of young Norway spruce stands were investigated in areas showing new type of damage. Two treatments such as thinned plots and no-thinning control plots were established in randomized blocks. Besides mensurational characteristics of crop trees (1 000–1 500.ha-1 marked in both treatments) such as diameter and height growth, yellowing of needles and survival were monitored. The aim of experiment was to confirm or reject a hypothesis about the negative effect of thinning on declining spruce-dominated young stands. After thinning, crop trees reacted positively as they increased their diameter increment within two-three years of investigation while height growth remained unaffected, which contributed to development of more stable (lower h/dbh ratio) stems. No significant effects on yellowing were found in vigorous crop trees of the thinned treatment compared to the unthinned ones. The aim is to get at least 600 crop trees.ha-1 over the first years after thinning. The study presents results from the initial stage of thinning research – further research to continue monitoring of the crop trees response and conduct following thinning operations is needed. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
As the use of harvester technology and cut-to-length harvesting systems in the Czech Republic has been increasing lately, the volume of timber, for which it is possible to use several methods of the volume determination for forest management documentation, is also rising. These methods are (i) using harvester production – inventory software outputs on felling site, (ii) using pile measuring method at the roadside, or (iii) a combination of both. Volume differences between methods (i) and (ii), however, cause problems in timber stock documentation, and for accepting harvester data outputs by state-owned company Forests of the Czech Republic (Lesy České republiky) there are accuracy requirements of ± 2% maximal difference from the control pile measurement. In this study, harvester data outputs were compared with the pile measurements on 168 piles from 53 felling sites. Only 11.3% of recorded values proved ± 2% of volume difference. The most of the measurements (38.6%) were in the category of ± 10–25% difference. The biggest difference was recorded on larch (9.2%), followed by broad-leaved trees (-7.48%), pine (-2.38%), and the lowest difference was observed in spruce (2.09%). For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
The forest hydrological research in the small experimental basins Červik (CE) and Mala Raztoka (MR) in the Moravian-Silesian Beskids started on the 1st November 1953. Long-term data series and evaluation of individual components of the water balance are a valuable contribution to more precise information on the interactions of the forest ecosystem elements. Comprehensive sets of complete long-term data are the base of deeper knowledge and objective evaluation of the dynamics of rainfall-runoff process. In both experimental basins the total year precipitation amounts in 2017 were so close to long-term averages and were equally divided in the warm and cold period of the hydrological year. The highest precipitation amounts were recorded in September (168.2 mm in CE and 251.0 mm in MR). Conversely, the lowest total rainfalls were recorded in June, July and August. During the hydrological year the outflow was regular and close to the averages in both experimental basins. The annual air temperature was the same as long term average in CE (6.7°C), in MR it was mildly lower than long-term average. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is an introduced north-American species with highly valuated timber. In the Czech Republic it occupies cca 1,000 ha only, particularly in the flood-plain area of south Moravia. Comparing to native tree species, black walnut shows high volume and value production. On the contrary, it is exposed to pressure from the part of environmentalist organizations, due to growth at the valuable sites. Aim of the presented study is the summarization of available data from abroad as well as from the Czech Republic, to gather information concerning the production potential and environmental effects of this species in Czech conditions. The study summarizes literature sources concerning volume and volume production as well as the available data on environmental effects, especially effects of black walnut on the plant communities in the forest ecosystems. Results document the excellent production potential of this species in proper conditions and conditions for minimizing risks for the forest environment. More attention should be paid to this species in the Czech conditions, its position in the Czech forestry should increase in restricted controlled extent.