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This study estimates the effect of application of mycorrhizal additives Ectovit and Mycorrhizaroots and hydro-absorbent Stockosorb on survival, growth and foliar nutrients of Norway spruce and European beech seedlings five years after outplanting. Survival rate was 74% for spruce and 56% for beech seedlings, regardless of treatments. Ectovit- and Stockosorb-treated spruce survived by 8% better than control, Mycorrhizaroots treated beech survived by 10% worse than in the other treatments. Damage rate of spruce was higher than that of beech in consequence of dying of severe damaged beech seedlings (deer browsing, mechanical damage at weed control, shoots drying) that were not counted to damage rate. Growth of spruce was slightly more intensive than growth of beech. A slightly positive effect of Stockosorb on the growth of spruce and slightly negative effect on the growth of beech was detected, however, these effects were not significant. Foliar analyses revealed sufficient nutritional status for spruce, but insufficient content of potassium and magnesium for beech. Concentrations of nutrients in spruce needles were slightly higher in control than in Ectovit-treated seedlings, whereas nutrients in beech foliage were almost equal in all treatments. The results suggest a different response of the species tested to the additives, however, the additives effects were not marked on intraspecific level, probably due to favorable soil and climatic conditions of the planting site.
Douglas-fir is one of the most promising introduced tree species in Czech forests. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the two oldest experiments established in the Moravia region in 1959 on two localities: (i) Horní Lhota and (ii) Studená Loučka with 11 and 9 provenances, respectively. On the trials, basic quantitative characteristics were evaluated, obtained results from both trial were then compared. Also, an ocular assessment of basic qualitative traits was performed. On the trial Horní Lhota, there were found differences especially among growing stocks of individual provenances. Provenances from Oregon were found to be slightly above average in (i), while provenances from Washington were slightly above average in (ii). However, the Studená Loučka trial showed slightly worse evaluated characteristics compared with the Horní Lhota trial. The universal optimal provenance for both trials was not found, the growing stock was influenced by the different number of trees in both trials.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the development of production characteristics and health status of young spruce stand in the area of the Nízký Jeseník Mts. (Czech Republic). Research was conducted in the period 2016–2018 on 12 sub-plots established in the spruce stand at the age of 19 years. Diameter and height increments and derived production characteristics were monitored along with defoliation, biotic damage and mortality rates. In addition, a prediction of stand development was carried out using a linear regression model. Between 2016 and 2018, the decrease of the stand basal area was recorded from 24.7 to 24.1 m2/ha. Annual diameter increments slowed down from 0.5 cm to 0.4 cm and height increments from 0.59 to 0.24 m. Volume increments decreased from 6.86 to 3.12 m3/ha. Cumulative mortality reached 24.1% in 2018, which means an increase of 13.9% compared to 2015. Defoliation increased from 25.8% in 2016 to 30.5% in 2018. The terminal mortality factor causing the current dieback of mature spruce stands in the Northern Moravia is bark beetle (Ips sp.). In the case of younger stands, decline can occur as a result of the effect of phytopathogens, especially Armillaria sp. that fundamentally affects the functionality of the root system and disturbs an uptake of water and nutrients. This effect is currently intensified by drought episodes. Changes in the tree species composition aimed at increase of the proportion of improving and stabilizing tree species in combination with chemical amelioration are a way to preserve the production function of the forest on sites currently severely damaged.
The article presents comparative analysis of water use efficiency (WUE) of forested micro-watersheds located in the area of Forest Training Enterprise Masarykův Les Křtiny (FTE MF), Czech Republic, during precipitation-free periods of a part of the 2015 growing season. The micro-watersheds can be characterized as forested upland watersheds of relatively equal size (less than 1 square km) and terrain morphology with different tree species composition (with different dominant species – more than 50%: spruce (Picea abies), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and mixed five tree species, none of them over 30%). Water use efficiency was evaluated as the mean decrease of average daily streamflow in the discharge profile of the catchment recipients occurring during precipitation-free periods that lasted several days. At this time, the streamflow dynamics is influenced the most by the evapotranspiration of surrounding vegetation, and its effect on streamflow can be best observed. Four such precipitation-free periods were identified during the study period; two of them within the middle of growing season, and the other two at its end. Two of the precipitation-free periods were characterized as long lasting (more than 15 days), the other two were of short duration (not longer than 6 days). Our results indicate that WUE of upland forested micro-watersheds can be significantly different according to the different dominant tree species in the forest stands and depending on the duration of the precipitation-free period and the part of the growing season. Generally, in the conditions of uplands, the lowest values of WUE were obtained in the case of the spruce dominated catchment, while the best for the beech dominated one.
The paper deals with evaluation of silver fir growth in the four experimental plots situated in more-less monospecific or mixed spruce, fir and beech stands in Slovakia. No interventions on the mentioned plots were carried out for the investigated period of 45 to 50 years. Comparison of height growth course and selected quantitative characteristics (current annual basal area increment, relation between current annual diameter increment and crown width) were found. The results showed substantial decrease of silver fir from 7% to 30% out of total basal area, whereas original proportion was found 21–51%. On the contrary, the highest share was registered on all plots for beech. Actually, on pure fir stand the proportion of this species increased during the investigated period. On the mentioned stand, the best height growth was found in a consequence of the best site index, as well as the highest values of crown width and basal area increment. The closest relation between crown width and annual diameter increment was found on plots with the lowest number of trees. Results suggested that fir proportion and its growth in mixed stands with spruce and beech was markedly influenced by the latter tree species, which is considered to be a strong competitor under the given ecological conditions.
The effect of different light conditions (100%, 50–60% and 20–30% of full light) and different irrigation regimes (480, 360, 240 and 120 mm during vegetation season) on the emergence, growth, survival and root characteristics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings of 5 Czech provenances was investigated. Full-light conditions resulted in the lowest survival rates (10–25%) across all irrigation variants, while the highest survival rates (50–70%) were found in semi-shade conditions for all considered provenances. Generally, the root lengths, shoot dry mass and root dry mass were the highest in full-light conditions, on the contrary the shoot-root ratios for both the above and below ground plant lengths (0.19–0.35 in full-light versus 0.70–0.83 in full-shade conditions; F(11, 108) = 92,6; p < 0,001) and dry mass (1.1–2.1 in full-light versus 3.3–4.9 in full-shade conditions; F(11, 108) = 146.1; p < 0,001) were the lowest. Conditions resembling shelterwood regeneration were more favourable for seedling emergence, root characteristics were more favourable in conditions simulating clear-cutting.
This paper focuses on water activity and its potential application in forestry tree seed management, such as seed moisture control during drying and storage. Moisture content in seeds is crucial to long-term survival of stored seeds, as it affects the rate of metabolic and deteriorative reactions. Therefore, understanding of the relationship between the storage temperature, relative humidity and seed water content is essential for developing optimal seed storage protocols. Water activity (aw) measurement is a concept developed and mainly used in food-processing (foodsafety). Water activity illustrates the energy status of water and consequently its degree of availability and mobility in biological materials. Water activity provides data about availability of water for fungi, yeasts and hydrolytic reactions influencing successful seed storage. Measurement of water activity is a non-destructive, rapid method for detecting moisture of seeds; seed lots can be tested regularly without spoilage and information collected is reliable. Water sorption isotherm describes the relationship between water activity and the seed moisture content at a given temperature.
The concept of sustainable development is concerned with the quality of economic growth, human well-being, and the environment. Hence, it connects environmental, economic, and social issues as reflected in the Triple Bottom Line approach. Forestry and forests meet the country’s major functions that are essential to its ecological stability, rational use and sustainable development. The various economic and business indicators of forestry sector are therefore divided into three pillars: economic, environmental and social. The paper presents the economic and financial results of all subjects in forestry sector for 2016 and analyses their development for the period 2010–2016. Total sales and revenues of all subjects of forestry sector reached in 2016 the amount of 980 million €. The costs of all subjects in forestry sector amounted to 930 million €. Forestry sector achieved in 2016 profit in the amount of 50 million €. On the other side, forestry sector fulfils also environmental and social aspects, and therefore it could be concluded that forest management in Slovakia is sustainable. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.